Ch 15 : Probability

Exercise 15.1

1. In a cricket match, a batswoman hits a boundary 6 times out of 30 balls she plays. Find the probability that she did not hit a boundary.

Answer

Total numbers of balls = 30
Numbers of boundary = 6
Numbers of time she didn’t hit boundary = 30 – 6 = 24
Probability she did not hit a boundary = 24/30 = 4/5

2. 1500 families with 2 children were selected randomly, and the following data were recorded:

Number of girls in a family 2 1 0
Number of families            475           814          211

Compute the probability of a family, chosen at random, having
(i) 2 girls                (ii) 1 girl                   (iii) No girl
Also check whether the sum of these probabilities is 1.

Answer

Total numbers of families = 1500

(i) Numbers of families having 2 girls = 475
Probability = Numbers of families having 2 girls/Total numbers of families
= 475/1500 = 19/60
(ii) Numbers of families having 1 girls = 814
Probability = Numbers of families having 1 girls/Total numbers of families
= 814/1500 = 407/750
(iii) Numbers of families having 2 girls = 211
Probability = Numbers of families having 0 girls/Total numbers of families
= 211/1500
Sum of the probability = 19/60 + 407/750 + 211/1500
= (475 + 814 + 211)/1500 = 1500/1500 = 1
Yes, the sum of these probabilities is 1.

3. Refer to Example 5, Section 14.4, Chapter 14. Find the probability that a student of the class was born in August.

Answer

chap

Total numbers of students = 40
Numbers of students = 6
Required probability = 6/40 = 3/20

4. Three coins are tossed simultaneously 200 times with the following frequencies of different outcomes:

Outcome      3 heads      2 heads     1 head      No head
Frequency 23 72 77 28

If the three coins are simultaneously tossed again, compute the probability of 2 heads coming up.

Answer

Number of times 2 heads come up = 72
Total number of times the coins were tossed = 200
Required probability = 72/200 = 9/25

5. An organisation selected 2400 families at random and surveyed them to determine a relationship between income level and the number of vehicles in a family. The information gathered is listed in the table below:

Monthly income
(in ₹)
Vehicles per family
0 1 2 Above 2
Less than 7000 10 160 25 0
7000-10000 0 305 27 2
10000-13000 1 535 29 1
13000-16000 2 469 59 25
16000 or more 1 579 82 88
Suppose a family is chosen. Find the probability that the family chosen is

(i) earning ₹10000 – 13000 per month and owning exactly 2 vehicles.
(ii) earning ₹16000 or more per month and owning exactly 1 vehicle.
(iii) earning less than ₹7000 per month and does not own any vehicle.
(iv) earning ₹13000 – 16000 per month and owning more than 2 vehicles.
(v) owning not more than 1 vehicle.

Answer

Total numbers of families = 2400

(i) Numbers of families earning ₹10000 –13000 per month and owning exactly 2 vehicles = 29
Required probability = 29/2400

(ii) Number of families earning ₹16000 or more per month and owning exactly 1 vehicle = 579
Required probability = 579/2400

(iii) Number of families earning less than ₹7000 per month and does not own any vehicle = 10 Required probability = 10/2400 = 1/240

(iv) Number of families earning ₹13000-16000 per month and owning more than 2 vehicles = 25
Required probability = 25/2400 = 1/96

(v) Number of families owning not more than 1 vehicle = 10+160+0+305+1+535+2+469+1+579
                                                                                         = 2062
Required probability = 2062/2400 = 1031/1200
6. Refer to Table 14.7, Chapter 14.
(i) Find the probability that a student obtained less than 20% in the mathematics test.
(ii) Find the probability that a student obtained marks 60 or above.

Marks Number of students
0 – 20 7
20 – 30 10
30 – 40 10
40 – 50 20
50 – 60 20
60 – 70 15
70 – above 8
Total 90
AnswerTotal numbers of students = 90

(i) Numbers of students obtained less than 20% in the mathematics test = 7
Required probability = 7/90

(ii) Numbers of student obtained marks 60 or above = 15+8 = 23
Required probability = 23/90

7. To know the opinion of the students about the subject statistics, a survey of 200 students was conducted. The data is recorded in the following table.

Opinion Number of students
like 135
dislike 65

Find the probability that a student chosen at random
(i) likes statistics, (ii) does not like it.

AnswerTotal numbers of students = 135 + 65 = 200

(i) Numbers of students who like statistics = 135
Required probability = 135/200 = 27/40

(ii) Numbers of students who does not like statistics = 65
Required probability = 65/200 = 13/40

8. Refer to Q.2, Exercise 14.2. What is the empirical probability that an engineer lives:
(i) less than 7 km from her place of work?
(ii) more than or equal to 7 km from her place of work?
(iii) within 1/2 km from her place of work?

Answer

The distance (in km) of 40 engineers from their residence to their place of work were found as follows:
5     3     10     20     25     11     13     7     12     31     19     10     12     17     18      11     3      2      17      16     2     7     9     7     8      3     5     12     15     18     3     12     14     2     9     6     15     15     7     6     12

Total numbers of engineers = 40
(i) Numbers of engineers living less than 7 km from her place of work = 9
Required probability = 9/40

(ii) Numbers of engineers living less than 7 km from her place of work = 40 – 9 = 31
Required probability = 31/40

(iii) Numbers of engineers living less than 7 km from her place of work = 0
Required probability = 0/40 = 0

Page No: 285

11. Eleven bags of wheat flour, each marked 5 kg, actually contained the following weights of flour (in kg):
4.97      5.05      5.08     5.03     5.00     5.06     5.08      4.98       5.04       5.07       5.00
Find the probability that any of these bags chosen at random contains more than 5 kg of flour.

Answer

Total numbers of bags = 11
Numbers of bags containing more than 5 kg of flour = 7
Required probability = 7/11

12. In Q.5, Exercise 14.2, you were asked to prepare a frequency distribution table, regarding the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the air in parts per million of a certain city for 30 days. Using this table, find the probability of the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the interval 0.12-0.16 on any of these days.
The data obtained for 30 days is as follows:
0.03      0.08      0.08      0.09      0.04      0.17      0.16      0.05      0.02      0.06      0.18      0.20      0.11      0.08      0.12      0.13      0.22      0.07      0.08      0.01      0.10      0.06      0.09      0.18      0.11      0.07      0.05      0.07      0.01      0.04

Answer

Total numbers of days data recorded = 30 days
Numbers of days in which sulphur dioxide in the interval 0.12-0.16 = 2
Required probability = 2/30 = 1/15

13. In Q.1, Exercise 14.2, you were asked to prepare a frequency distribution table regarding the blood groups of 30 students of a class. Use this table to determine the probability that a student of this class, selected at random, has blood group AB.
The blood groups of 30 students of Class VIII are recorded as follows:
A, B, O, O, AB, O, A, O, B, A, O, B, A, O, O, A, AB, O, A, A, O, O, AB, B, A, O, B, A, B, O.

Answer

Total numbers of students = 30
Numbers of students having blood group AB = 3
Required probability = 3/30 = 1/10

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